The 7 Elements of Learner Agency

seven elements of learner agency

These 7 elements contribute to learner agency: voice, choice, engagement, motivation, ownership, purpose, and self-efficacy. We arrived at these elements to define the journey learners of all ages can go through to develop agency. Each element is a process defined along a continuum to guide teachers and learners as they move from teacher-centered to learner-centered to learner-driven environments, the Stages of Personalized Learning Environments (PLE), Version 5.

Click on the Continuums below to discover each element and what it means for the learner.

Also take a look at the Crosswalk of Learner Agency Across the Stages under the Toolkit.


Continuum of Voice



Continuum of Choice

continuum of choice


Continuum of Engagement

continuum of engagement


Continuum of Motivation

continuum of motivation


Continuum of Ownership

continuum of ownership


Continuum of Purpose

continuum of purpose


Continuum of Self-Efficacy

continuum of self-efficacy


A special thank You to Sylvia Duckworth @sylviaduckworth ( from Crescent School, Toronto, Canada who created each graphic.

Each Continuum by Barbara Bray and Kathleen McClaskey is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. Each Continuum was created by Barbara Bray and Kathleen McClaskey (@khmmc) of Personalized Learning, LLC in 2015 and 2016.  For permission to adapt, distribute copies, or to use in a publication, contact Kathleen McClaskey at or use the Contact Me form.


1 thought on “Continuums”

  1. Now you can locate all Seven Continuums of Learner Agency on one page. A link has been created to go to each continuum: Voice, Choice, Motivation, Engagement, Purpose, Ownership and Self-Efficacy. Later this year, you will be able to purchase these continuums for your classroom.

    Go to the Toolkit tab and locate the Crosswalk of Learner Agency Across the Stages. Please share how you are using these continuums in your school and classroom.

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